Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine

The Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine article provides you with information about the gas turbine testing and gas turbine inspection in the manufacturing shop.

You may need to review this article in along with the following article:

Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine

Inspection and Test Plan for Gas Turbine

This content guides you through all necessary stages in the production of the gas turbine, including the inspection of raw material to the final inspection, preservation and packing, and dispatch to site.

You need to take this point into account: this article is written for a typical gas turbine and might not be detailed for special cases.

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This content may be useful for second party inspectors, gas turbine manufacturer quality control personnel, engineering companies, and purchasers, as well.

All gas turbine inspection and testing is done against the approved drawings, purchase order specifications, purchasers or company standards, and within the practices and rules of the country, state or province and any government decrees, laws, ordinance or regulation as may apply.

This content is useful primarily to open cycle combustion gas turbine units for mechanical drive operations and does not apply to the hot gas generator sets in industrial use of the aircraft pod type.

The applicable codes and specifications for a gas turbine that is under the construction process is:

  • Design code
  • Purchase order specification
  • Purchaser's standards
  • Approved drawings

and the applicable codes and standards are:

  • API 616
  • Other Related API Recommendation Practices

The applicable codes and standards may be based on other international standards such as JIS B8041, etc. This content is general and can be useful even if the design code is different from the API Code.

Required Documents for Third Party Inspector Review:

The list of documents normally is agreed upon in the Pre-Inspection meeting, which is held several weeks before the actual commencement of the inspection work.

The parties that participate in this meeting are the manufacturer, purchaser and third party inspection agency representatives.

This is already explained in the Inspection and Test Plan for Gas Turbine article.

These are the list of documents that are normally agreed upon to be presented to the inspector:

  • Gas Turbine Purchase Order or Contract
  • Gas Turbine Manufacture Quality Control Plan
  • Gas Turbine Inspection and Test Plan
  • Gas Turbine Data Sheet
  • Gas Turbine Approved Drawings
  • Gas Turbine Material Test Reports
  • Gas Turbine Welding Specification Procedures (WPS) and Procedure Qualification Records(PQR)
  • Gas Turbine Welders Qualifications Reports
  • Gas Turbine NDE Procedures (Radiography, Ultrasonic, Magnetic Particle, Dye Penetration, etc.)
  • Gas Turbine NDE Personnel qualifications Reports
  • Gas Turbine Heat Treatment Procedure
  • Gas Turbine Calibration Certificates for Test Equipment
  • Gas Turbine Hydrostatic Testing Procedure and Water Quality Document
  • Gas Turbine Performance Test procedure
  • Gas Turbine Preparation and Painting Procedure
  • Gas Turbine Preservation, Packing and Shipping Procedure
  • Gas Turbine Packing List

Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine - Material Inspection

The first actual inspection work in the gas turbine is the raw materials inspection.

The original or authenticated copies of mill certificates of material normally are available at the manufacturer's premises.

The third party inspector examines these certificates for compliance with specifications, and where appropriate, drawings.

The review includes checks on:

  • Certificate No.
  • Heat or cast No.
  • Chemical Composition
  • Mechanical Properties
  • Heat Treated Condition
  • NDE Applied and Results
  • Surface Finish

Then the inspector witnesses the materials identification on the certificates against the materials marking. It is also necessary to check these with the gas turbine drawing datasheet, material list and other specifications as appropriate.

Visual inspection for surface finish and probable defects is done and dimensional compliance with specification need to be controlled, as well.

When third party inspector carries out the material inspection, then provides the inspection visit report (IVR), the report contains the following items:

  • Confirmation of satisfactory document review
  • Record of the endorsement of certification reviewed/witnessed
  • Record of all non-conformities
  • Record of any tests witnessed and the result

Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine – Fabrication Inspection

When the gas turbine material inspection is carried out, and the results were satisfactory or non-conformities were closed by remedial action, then the gas turbine manufacturer will start fabrication.

The third party inspector checks the following points on the gas turbine based on the inspection and test plan (ITP), which has already been agreed upon between the purchaser and the gas turbine manufacturer.

The inspection scope is determined in the ITP. Some purchasers prefer to have stringent controls and assign the TPI for more “hold or witness points” for inspection and test activities, and some others prefer less “hold or witness points” and assign the TPI much more work in the “review document.”

This depends in the inspection budget, which purchasers assign for inspection. Much more inspection will have a much larger cost and less risk, and conversely, less inspection will have less cost but more risks.

We Provide TPI Inspection Services in Most Industrial Areas Around the Globe. Click Here for More Information

For more details, review the Inspection and Test Plan for Gas Turbine article. There is a draft of the ITP in this article, which we believe is the best practice for gas turbine inspection.

The third party inspector checks the following items in the gas turbine fabrication inspection process:

  • Visual inspection for damage
  • Dimensional check to drawing requirement
  • Inspection of parts, particularly cast in passages and piping for cleanliness
  • Visual examination of welded on connections
  • Review of welder qualifications
  • Review of weld procedure record
  • Confirmation of satisfactory NDE
  • Proper documentation of the materials used
  • Examination/inspection of integral parts such as reduction gears, combustion chamber unit and exhaust casings

If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP for this inspection stage, then he/she will review the gas turbine manufacturer quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final inspection day.

Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine – Hydrostatic Tests

The Gas Turbine and other pressure containing parts are hydrostatically tested. The main items are:

  • Turbine casing
  • Combustion chamber
  • Fuel systems
  • Auxiliary pressure vessels

The third party inspector verifies that the correct test pressure has been applied to the relevant parts depending on specification requirements.

Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine - Rotor Balance Test

When required by the contract or purchase order, the third party inspector witnesses the measurement of the residual out of balance force by dynamic testing and approves the results.

Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP for this inspection stage, then he/she will review the gas turbine manufacturer quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final inspection day.

Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine - Over Speed Test

When required by the contract or purchase order, the third party inspector witnesses the rotor shaft overspeed test and approves the results.

Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP for this inspection stage, then he/she will review the gas turbine manufacturer quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final inspection day.

Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine - Clearance Checks

After completion of fabrication, the required clearances is checked by third party inspector in accordance with the specification requirement, the following areas are examined:

  • Radial clearance between rotor and casing
  • Axial clearance between the rotor blades and stationary points

Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine - Mechanical Running Test

When required by the contract or purchase order, gas turbine is subjected to a mechanical running test.

Following items are taken into account for gas turbine mechanical running test:

  • Fuel condition (type of fuel, consumption)
  • Lubricating oil condition (viscosity, temperature, flow)
  • Cooling water condition (temperature pressure, flow)
  • Critical speed
  • Bearing temperature
  • Vibration
  • Start/stop reliability check
  • Governor condition
  • Noise level
  • Test condition (Pressure, temperature, humidity)

Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP for this inspection stage, then he/she will review the gas turbine manufacturer quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final inspection day.

Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine - Governor Test

When required by the code, contract or order, gas turbine is subjected to a governor test.

The following characteristics are considered to be important:

  • Operation of overspeed trip emergency system usually by a consecutive 3 time test
  • Fluctuation of the Governor at rated speed
  • Governor rang

Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP for this inspection stage, then he/she will review the gas turbine manufacturer quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final inspection day.

Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine - Performance Test

The third party inspector witnesses the gas turbine performance test and following points are taken in account:

  • Satisfactory completion of previous tests
  • Power Output
  • Thermal Efficiency

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Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine - Final Visual Inspection

After completion of all testing a visual examination including a partial strip down of the unit is usually required by the specification and is witnessed by third party inspector.

The particular areas of interest are:

  • Journal bearing pods
  • Thrust bearing pods
  • Rotor shaft with thrust collar
  • Shaft seal rings
  • Rotor blades
  • Combustion Chambers
  • Tooth contract in gear trains

Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine - Name Plate Control

The third party inspector checks the content in accordance with the approved drawings and specifications and make sure it is stamped in accordance with the code requirements.

Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine - Painting and Coating Inspection

Surface preparation for painting is checked for the following points, according to specification by third party inspector:

  • Cleaning method (Blast or scraping and wire brushing)
  • Preparation grades
  • Freedom from weld spatter, blow-holes and other defects
  • Dry film thickness is checked according to specification

It is necessary that surface condition is free from pin-holes, runs damage and other discontinuity.

Similarly, If the third party inspector is not in the hold or witness point in the ITP for this inspection stage, then he/she will review the gas turbine manufacturer quality control report in his/her coming visit or on the final inspection day.

Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine Spare Parts, Loose Items and Accessories

Spare parts, loose items and accessories are checked visually for their dimensions, materials, workmanship and quantity, according to the purchase order specification.

Test marks and tags are checked for correct identification.

Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine - Reporting:

The third party inspector provides an Inspection Visit Report (IVR) after each visit, as well as a final report summarizing the activities carried out during the gas turbine production in accordance with the contract requirements and circulated within the time limits specified in the contract.

The report is in the format required by the client and clearly indicates final acceptance or rejection of the gas turbine.

Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine - Release Note:

When required by the contract or purchase order, a release note is issued by the third party inspection agency and given to the manufacturer when the gas turbines have been accepted.

Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine - Packing, Marking and Shipping:

The following points are checked by the third party inspector:

  • All exterior machined surfaces are coated with rust preventative.
  • All internal surfaces that are susceptible to corrosion are coated with rust preventative,
  • All flanged openings should be fitted with metal protectors in accordance with the specification,
  • All threaded connections are provided with steel plugs
  • Exposed shafts and shaft couplings are covered with waterproof material and sealed
  • Check manuals and instructions are included to the specification requirements
  • Packing style and suitability for overseas shipment
  • Shipping marks are correct
  • Pre-assembled systems are marked as required by the specification

Third Party Inspection for Gas Turbine - Final Book (Dossier)

The following final documents are reviewed and signed off by the third party inspector:

Manufacturer's data reports, Material certification, Dimensional record, NDE reports, Hydrostatic test reports, Rotor balance report, Clearance check report, Run-test reports, Performance test, Final inspection report, Markings, Packing list, Spare parts list

Related TPI Articles:

Reciprocating Compressor, Centrifugal Pump, Centrifugal Compressor, Steam Turbine, Fan and Blower, Screw Compressor 


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